Twice in the last month I've picked up the phone to answer a presales tech support call and I had to gently answer this question: "Can your software help me find my laptop? someone stole it, but I know it's MAC address. Your software has something called ARP Ping. I want to use it to ping my lost laptop!"
What they really wanted was to do some kind of trace or ping to the laptop's MAC address and get a response back if it happened to be online somewhere on the internet. Since our software has ARP Ping, they thought it could be used to ping their computer's MAC address. I had to go through an explanation where I basically told them that although their MAC address may be (or may not be) unique, the system of routing packets on the internet has no way to sending a packet to the MAC address of their lost laptop. I told them that the MAC address is a hardware address of the ethernet card and it is only used within the local network (on his side of his DSL router). The packets leaving his network through the router are on a higher level protocol and do not retain the MAC address of the devices on his side of the DSL router. That's the simple explanation. I told them next time they buy a laptop to get software that periodically "phones home" like LoJack.
The more detailed explanation has to do with how packets are transmitted on a network. To send a packet between two computers on the same ethernet network you need two types of addresses: Layer 2 (L2) -- the OSI model link layer and Layer 3 (L3) -- the OSI model network layer. L2 addresses are local in scope which means that two devices may have the same L2 address (this does happen) as long as they are not on the same network segment or subnet. An L3 address must also be unique within the scope of the network it is connected to. On an ethernet network a MAC address is a L2 address and an IPv4 address is L3.
In order to deliver a packet between two computers on an ethernet network, L2 addresses need to be mapped to L3 addresses. This mapping can be either dynamic (usual method) or static. The ARP protocol (RFC 826) is used to build and maintain this mapping. It is a simple protocol intended to find the L2 hardware address of a device given a known L3 IP address on an (usually but not limited to ethernet) network. A device does this by sending an ARP Request packet to all the devices on the network segment asking for the L2 address given a known L3 address.
A typical ARP conversation looks like this:
"All devices! (255.255.255.255) -- who has IP address 192.168.1.29? My IP address is 192.168.1.44 and my MAC address is 00:11:22:22:33:ef" (ARP Request)
"Device 192.168.1.29 replies -- I do! I do! and my MAC address is 00:22:44:66:ab:cd" (ARP Reply)
Now the ARP cache on each device has the IP address and MAC address of the other and they can exchange packets. Each device keeps a transient ARP cache locally showing those mappings based on previous packet exchanges.
When you need to send a packet to an IPv4 address outside your network segment, it sends them through the Default Gateway or router. How does your computer know when to send a packet through the gateway? by looking at the destination IP address and subnet mask . When your computer sees that the packet has to leave the network segment, it finds the L2 and L3 address of the gateway/router, then sends the packet there. The router sees that the IP address is not for the local network segment and uses its routing table to forward it on to the next network. The IP packet does not retain the network L2 address of your computer once it goes through the router just as ARP Request packets are not sent through the router. The networks on the other side of the router will most likely have different L2 Link Layer addresses that are not necessarily MAC addresses as you know them.
So back to the original question: can ARP Ping be used to send a packet to some MAC address outside your network?
No. Because ARP Ping is simply sending the normal ARP Request packet while monitoring the timing. If you try to send a strange ARP Request packet with the destination IP address 0.0.0.0 in it but containing a valid local destination MAC address, it won't work because no computer on your segment will respond. The ARP service on all the listening computers is looking for the IP address of the device that received it, not a MAC address. When the ARP packet hits the router, it is ignored if it does not have the IP address of the router in it. And similarly, if you send a packet with IP 0.0.0.0 and a random MAC address, it too will not leave your network.